Pixel, 2D array

  • Digital image representation
  • Optical sensor
  • Sensor saturation (problems with measurement)
  • Rolling vs global shutter

RGB vs. grayscale

  • Why are grayscale cameras still in use?
  • RGGB system (Bayer)
  • 3-chip cameras
  • RGB disadvantages (false accuracy)
  • RGB cameras sold as gray

Area scan vs Line scan

  • Line scan advantages
    • Easy synchronization with encoder
    • Big scale
  • Disadvantages
    • Vibrations
    • No second chance of image acquisition

Sensor and pixel size

  • How can sensor size and pixel size influence your measurement?

Spectral range

  • Brief introduction to UV and IR cameras


Smart cameras

  • Proven applications (barcode and 2D code with stable conditions, OCR, verification etc.)
  • Advantages
    • Price
    • Ability to replicate quickly
  • Disadvantages
    • Inflexibility
    • Inability for upgrades and going outside of predefined constraints




  • Lens physics

Basic concepts

  • Focal point
  • Distortion effects
  • Field of view
  • Depth of field

Telecentric lenses

  • Motivation for usage
  • Advantages
  • Disadvantages

Feasibility calculations

  • Online tools



LED frontlight

  • Color differences


  • Applications

Polarized light


Practical examples

Real world implications

  • Conveyor belt speed
  • External light
  • Vibrations
  • Camera heating

Practical example of a real-world calculation

  • Based on a conveyor belt speed, camera exposure time, lens and camera chip parameters determine if the system is feasible